Science


Age

Investigational Skills

Biology

Physics

Chemistry

Birth - 11 Months

Babies explore media and materials as part of their exploration of the world around them.




8 - 20 Months

Closely observes what animals, people and vehicles do.


Knows things are used in different ways, e.g. a ball for rolling or throwing, a toy car for pushing.




16 - 26 Months

Explores objects by linking together different approaches: shaking, hitting, looking, feeling, tasting, mouthing, pulling, turning and poking.

Shows interest in toys with buttons, flaps and simple mechanisms and beginning to learn to operate them.




22 - 36 Months

Operates mechanical toys, e.g. turns the knob on a wind-up toy or pulls back on a friction car.





30 - 50 Months

Comments and asks questions about aspects of their familiar world such as the place where they live or the natural world.  


Can talk about some of the things they have observed such as plants, animals, natural and found objects.


Developing an understanding of growth, decay and changes over time.


Shows care and concern for living things and the environment. Talks about why things happen and how things work.


Beginning to be interested in and describe the texture of things.

Uses various construction materials

Beginning to construct, stacking blocks vertically and horizontally, making enclosures and creating spaces.


Talks about why things happen and how things work.


Shows an interest in technological toys with knobs or pulleys, or real objects such as cameras or mobile phones.


Shows skill in making toys work by pressing parts or lifting flaps to achieve effects such as sound, movements or new images.




40 - 60 Months

Looks closely at similarities, differences, patterns and change.


Manipulates materials to achieve a planned effect.  


Constructs with a purpose in mind, using a variety of resources.


Selects tools and techniques needed to shape, assemble and join materials they are using.




Early Learning Goal

Children know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, materials and living things.


They talk about the features of their own immediate environment and how environments might vary from one another.


They make observations of animals and plants and explain why some things occur, and talk about changes.


They safely use and explore a variety of materials, tools and techniques, experimenting with colour, design, texture, form and function.




Age 5-6

Asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways.


Performing simple tests.


Identifying and classifying.


Using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions.


Gathering and recording data to help in answering questions.

A variety of common animals including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals


Describe and compare the structure of a variety of common animals (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, including pets)


Identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores


Identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees.


Identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including trees.


Observe changes across the four seasons.


Observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies


Describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials.


Compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties.


Distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made.


Identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass, metal, water and rock.



Age 6-7

Asking simple questions and recognising that they can be answered in different ways.


Performing simple tests.


Identifying and classifying.


Using their observations and ideas to suggest answers to questions.


Gathering and recording data to help in answering questions.


Notice that animals, including humans, have offspring which grow into adults.


Find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival (water, food and air).


Explore and compare the differences between things that are living, dead, and things that have never been alive.


Describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea of a simple food chain, and identify and name different sources of food.


Observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants.


Find out and describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy.


Identify that most living things live in habitats to which they are suited and describe how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and plants, and how they depend on each other.


Identify and name a variety of plants and animals in their habitats, including micro-habitats.


Describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different types of food, and hygiene.



Identify and compare the suitability of a variety of everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick, rock, paper and cardboard for particular uses.


Find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching.




Age 7-8

Asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them.


Reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions.


Making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers.


Setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests.


Identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas or processes.


Using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions.


Recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables.


Gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions.


Using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.


Investigate the way in which water is transported within plants.


Explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from soil, and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant.


Explore the part that flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal.


Recognise that shadows are formed when the light from a light source is blocked by a solid object.


Find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change.


Compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials.


Describe magnets as having two poles.


Predict whether two magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which poles are facing.


Recognise that soils are made from rocks and organic matter.




Age 8-9

Asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them.


Reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions.


Making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including thermometers and data loggers.


Setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests.


Identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas or processes.


Using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions.


Recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams, keys, bar charts, and tables.


Gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions.


Using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings.


Describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans.


Identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions.


Construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey.


Explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living things in their local and wider environment.


Recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors.


Find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it.


Find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that produced it.


Recognise that sounds gets fainter as the distance from the sound source increases.


Describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies.


Describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth.


Describe the movement of the Earth, and other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system.


Use the idea of the Earth's rotation to explain day and night and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky.


Compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids or gases.


Observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C).


Identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature.


Age 9-10

Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy

and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate


Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including

recognising and controlling variables where necessary.


Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests.


Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.


Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs.


Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations.


Recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers to living things.


Describe the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird.


Describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals.


Describe the changes as humans develop to old age.


Explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object.


Identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces.


Recognise that some mechanisms, including levers, pulleys and gears, allow a smaller force to have a greater effect.


Use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating


Demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes.


Explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda.


Compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets.


Know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution.


Give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic.


Age 10-11

Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy

and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate


Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including

recognising and controlling variables where necessary.


Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests.


Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.


Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs.


Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations.


Identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood.


Describe the ways in which nutrients and water are transported within animals, including humans.


Recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function.


Describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including micro-organisms, plants and animals.


Give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics.


Recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide information about living things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago.


Recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents.


Identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution.


Recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines.


Use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye.


Explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes.


Use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them.


Associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit.


Compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches.


Use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram.




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