Writing



Ability to Write

Ability to Compose

Age

Handwriting

Spelling

GPS

Structure

Vocabulary

Audience

Purpose

Birth - 11 Months



8 - 20 Months




16 - 26 Months



20 - 36 Months

Distinguishes between the different marks they make.

Beginning to use representation to communicate, e.g. drawing a line and saying “That’s me.”

30 - 50 Months

Ascribes meaning to marks that they see in different places.


40 - 60 Months

Can orally segment the sounds in simple words and orally blend them together.


Links sounds to letter, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet.


Writes own name.


Begins to break the flow of speech into words.


Uses some clearly identifiable letters to communicate meaning, representing some sounds correctly and in sequence.

Gives meaning to marks they make as they draw, write and paint.


Writes labels and captions.


Attempts to write short sequences in meaningful contexts.

Early Learning Goal

Can hold and use a pencil effectively


letter formation is correct  (size

and shape may still be slightly inconsistent.)


Leaves a space between emerging words.


Can spell CVC words


Can spell many common, single syllable words correctly in writing,


Spells most of the words below correctly

Can sequence the letters of the alphabet


Children use their phonics knowledge to write words in ways that match their spoken sounds.


Write some irregular (tricky) common words.


Some words are spelt correctly and others are phonetically plausible.

Write simple sentences which can be read by themselves and others.


Says what they want to write, speaking in clearly defined statements or sentences


Can write simple labels and captions.


Can write three or more simple statements on a given subject that  can be read without the child’s help and that make sense

Age 5-6

Shows consistent use of upper/lower case, ascenders/descenders, size and form

Can make recognisable attempts at phonetically irregular unknown words


Always uses logical phonic strategies to phonetically regular unknown words


Spells most HFW correctly

Can use ANY connective, (may only ever be ‘and’) to join 2 simple sentences,


Can usually use a capital letter and . ? !  to punctuate sentences.


Age 6-7

Shows consistent use of upper/lower case, ascenders/descenders, size and form

Uses phonetically plausible strategies to spell unknown polysyllabic words


Spells HFW correctly



Structures basic sentences correctly, including A and . in a longer piece


Uses connectives and conjunctions other than ‘and’ to join 2 or more simple sentences.


Uses past and present tenses correctly


Varies the structure of sentences to interest the reader


Can use a range of punctuation, mainly correctly. (including ‘ for contraction)


Can link ideas and events, using strategies to create ‘flow’ (e.g. Last time, also, after, then, soon,


Beginning to match organisation to purpose,

Uses interesting and ambitious words sometimes,


Consciously selects the adjective for purpose, rather than using a familiar one

Provides enough detail to interest the reader


Provides additional detail, consciously uses humour

Can usually sustain narrative and non-narrative forms (can write at length, staying on task)


Is a clear difference between style of writing in narrative and non narrative forms.

Age 7-8

Can usually join their handwriting,

Spells phonetically regular or familiar common polysyllabic words accurately, most of words below

Extends sentences  using a wider range of conjunctions to clarify relationships between ideas


Uses correct grammatical structures in sentences,(nouns and verbs agree, correct tense )


Uses most punctuation accurately,

. A   ? ! , ‘


Uses pronouns to avoid the repetition of nouns.


Can link and relate events using temporal conjunctions

Structures and organises work clearly


Beginning to use paragraphs

Uses generalising words for style


Uses adjectives and adverbs for description


Uses interesting and ambitious words sometimes

Attempts to give opinion, interest or humour through detail.


Is beginning to develop a sense of pace


Adapts chosen form to the audience, (information about characters / setting, brackets for asides)

Can adapt form and style for purpose, ( formal and informal).


Develops characters and describes settings, feelings / emotions


Uses a range of chosen forms appropriately and consistently. (Other than narrative, report recount)

Age 8-9

Writes neatly, legibly and accurately, usually maintaining a joined style.

Spells unfamiliar regular polysyllabic words accurately and most or all  of words below

Uses nouns, pronouns and tenses accurately and consistently throughout.


Uses or attempt grammatically complex structures,


Uses a wide range of punctuation including A . , ? ! ‘  mainly accurately


Uses more sophisticated connectives and conjunctions


Opens sentences in a wide range of ways for interest and impact.

Organises  ideas appropriately for both purpose and reader,


Uses paragraphs although may not always be accurate.


Can use links to show time and cause.

Vocabulary is selected for purpose, some words are

particularly well chosen.



Can select interesting strategies to move a piece of writing forward


Can develop ideas in creative and interesting ways.

Can use a range of styles and genres confidently and independently


Can produce thoughtful and considered writing, (uses simple explanation, opinion, justification and deduction).


Can advise assertively, although not confrontationally, in factual writing, (e.g. ‘An important thing to think about before deciding...’,).

Age 9-10

writes neatly, legibly and accurately in a flowing, joined style.

spells accurately in all but the most complex words  (see below)

Uses a range of punctuation almost always accurately


uses complex sentence structures appropriately.


uses the passive voice for variety and to shift focus,


uses all grammar accurately except when consciously using dialect or colloquialism for purpose and audience.

produces well-structured and organised writing using a range of conventions in layout.


interweaves implicit and explicit links between sections.


uses paragraphs consistently and appropriately

selects from a wide range of known imaginative and ambitious vocabulary


shows confident and established ‘voice’.

varies sentence length and word order to sustain interest,


uses a range of devices to adapt writing to the needs of the reader, - subheadings, parenthesis bullets, etc

Uses literary features to create effect,


Uses different techniques to open or conclude work appropriate to purpose of writing


Uses appropriate informal and formal styles with confidence


Uses a range of narrative techniques with confidence, interweaving elements when appropriate

Age 10-11

maintains  legibility, fluency and speed in handwriting through consistently joined up handwriting

Spells all vocabulary correctly apart from rare technical or obscure words

Use the full range of punctuation, accurately, for sub-division, effect including apostrophes for omission and possession  


Uses creative and varied sentence structure when appropriate (including prepositional, noun and adverbial phrases)


Uses sophisticated connectives, including conjunctions, adverbs and  prepositions


uses all grammar accurately except when consciously using dialect or colloquialism for purpose and audience.


uses the passive voice for variety and to shift focus. (Verb choice is always accurate)

Opens and closes writing in interesting, unusual or dramatic ways, when appropriate.


Can use implicit links within text


Uses range of  organisation conventions appropriate to text

selects from a wide range of known imaginative and ambitious vocabulary


shows confident and established ‘voice’.

varies sentence length and word order to sustain interest,


Can use a range of techniques to interact or show awareness of audience

uses literary features to create effect,


Can adapt writing for the full range of purposes, always showing awareness of audience and purpose


Can consciously vary levels of formality according to purpose and audience.


uses a range of narrative techniques with confidence, interweaving elements when appropriate


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