Citizenship and Ethics


Making Relationships

Self Confidence and Self-Awareness

Managing Feelings and Behaviour

Birth - 11 Months

Enjoys the company of others and seeks contact with others from birth.

Gazes at faces and copies facial movements. e.g. sticking out tongue, opening mouth and widening eyes.

Responds when talked to, for example, moves arms and legs, changes facial expression, moves body and makes mouth movements.

Recognises and is most responsive to main carer’s voice: face brightens, activity increases when familiar carer appears.

Responds to what carer is paying attention to, e.g. following their gaze.

Likes cuddles and being held: calms, snuggles in, smiles, gazes at carer’s face or strokes carer’s skin.

Laughs and gurgles, e.g. shows pleasure at being tickled and other physical interactions.

Uses voice, gesture, eye contact and facial expression to make contact with people and keep their attention.

Is comforted by touch and people’s faces and voices.

Seeks physical and emotional comfort by snuggling into trusted adults.

Calms from being upset when held, rocked, spoken or sung to with soothing voice.

Shows a range of emotions such as pleasure, fear and excitement.

Reacts emotionally to other people’s emotions, e.g.smiles

when smiled at and becomes distressed if hears another child crying.

8 - 20 Months

Seeks to gain attention in a variety of ways, drawing others into social interaction.

Builds relationships with special people.

Is wary of unfamiliar people.

Interacts with others and explores new situations when supported by familiar person.

Shows interest in the activities of others and responds differently to children and adults, e.g. may be more interested in watching children than adult

Enjoys finding own nose, eyes or tummy as part of naming games.

Learns that own voice and actions have effects on others.

Uses pointing with eye gaze to make requests, and to share an interest.

Engages other people to help achieve a goal, e.g. to get an object out of reach.

Uses familiar adult to share feelings such as excitement or pleasure, and for ‘emotional refuelling’ when feeling tired, stressed or frustrated.

Growing ability to soothe themselves, and may like to use a comfort object.

Cooperates with caregiving experiences, e.g. dressing.

Beginning to understand ‘yes’, ‘no’ and some boundaries.

16 - 26 Months

Plays alongside others.

Uses a familiar adult as a secure base from which to explore independently in new environments, e.g. ventures away to play and interact with others, but returns for a cuddle or reassurance if becomes anxious.

Plays cooperatively with a familiar adult, e.g. rolling a ball back and forth.

Explores new toys and environments, but ‘checks in’ regularly with familiar adult as and when needed.

Gradually able to engage in pretend play with toys (supports child to understand their own thinking may be different from others).

Demonstrates sense of self as an individual, e.g. wants to do things independently, says “No” to adult.

Is aware of other's’ feelings, for example, looks concerned if

hears crying or looks excited if hears a familiar happy voice.

Growing sense of will and determination may result in feelings

of anger and frustration which are difficult to handle, e.g. may have tantrums.

Responds to a few appropriate boundaries, with encouragement and support.

Begins to learn that some things are theirs, some things are shared, and some things belong to other people.

22 - 36 Months

Interested in others’ play and starting to join in.

Seeks out others to share experiences.

Shows affection and concern for people who are special to them.

May form a special friendship with another child.

Separates from main carer with support and encouragement from a familiar adult.

Expresses own preferences and interests.

Seeks comfort from familiar adults when needed.

Can express their own feelings such as sad, happy, cross, scared, worried.

Responds to the feelings and wishes of others.

Aware that some actions can hurt or harm others.

Tries to help or give comfort when others are distressed.

Shows understanding and cooperates with some boundaries and routines.

Can inhibit own actions/behaviours, e.g. stop themselves from doing something they shouldn’t do.

Growing ability to distract self when upset, e.g. by engaging in a new play activity.

30 - 50 Months

Can play in a group, extending and elaborating play ideas, e.g. building up a role-play activity with other children.

Initiates play, offering cues to peers to join them.

Keeps play going by responding to what others are saying or doing.

Demonstrates friendly behaviour, initiating conversations and forming good relationships with peers and familiar adults.

Can select and use activities and resources with help.

Welcomes and values praise for what they have done.

Enjoys responsibility of carrying out small tasks.

Is more outgoing towards unfamiliar people and more confident in new social situations.

Confident to talk to other children when playing, and will communicate freely about own home and community.

Shows confidence in asking adults for help.

Aware of own feelings, and knows that some actions and words can hurt others’ feelings.

Begins to accept the needs of others and can take turns and share resources, sometimes with support from others.

Can usually tolerate delay when needs are not immediately met, and understands wishes may not always be met.

Can usually adapt behaviour to different events, social situations and changes in routine.

40 - 60 Months

Initiates conversations, attends to and takes account of what others say.

Explains own knowledge and understanding, and asks appropriate questions of others.

Takes steps to resolve conflict

Confident to speak to others about own needs, wants, interests and opinions.

Can describe self in positive terms and talk about abilities.

Understands that own actions affect other people, for

example, becomes upset or tries to comfort another child when they realise they have upset them.

Aware of the boundaries set, and of behavioural expectations in the setting.

Beginning to be able to negotiate and solve problems without aggression, e.g. when someone has taken their toy

Early Learning Goal

Children play co-operatively, taking turns with others. They take account of one another’s ideas about how to organise their activity. They show sensitivity to others’ needs and feelings, and form positive relationships with adults and other children.

Children are confident to try new activities, and say why they like some activities more than others. They are confident to speak in a familiar group, will talk about their ideas, and will choose the resources they need for their chosen activities. They say when they do or don’t need help.

Children talk about how they and others show feelings, talk about their own and others’ behaviour, and its consequences, and know that some behaviour is unacceptable. They work as part of a group or class, and understand and follow the rules. They adjust their behaviour to different situations, and take changes of routine in their stride.

Age 5-6

Demonstrate that they can identify, name and manage a wider range of feelings and recognise and express with confidence their positive qualities

Share their views and opinions and reasons for them, and set more challenging goals both short and medium term

Recognise the effect of their behaviour on others, and be able to cooperate with others and support those with difficulties

Identify, describe with confidence and respect differences and similarities between people and explain a wider range of ways that family and friends should care for one another

Recognise and be able to describe choices they can make and the difference between right and wrong

Contribute ideas for rules for the group and classroom, and refer to the rules in the context of their and others’ behaviour

Age 6-7

Make choices about a range of aspects of their health and well being, and be more confident in their understanding about what keeps them healthy

Explain ways of keeping clean, name the main parts of the body and describe some of the changes as people grow from young to old and the implications of this

Describe their knowledge of the harmful aspects of some household products and medicines, and ways of keeping safe and ensuring the safety of others in familiar situations

Understand simple definitions of bullying, describe why bullying is wrong and simple strategies for dealing with it and how to help victims

Take part in discussions with one other person, in small groups and with the whole class, and contribute more confidently to simple debates

Describe what improves and what harms their local, natural and built environments, what can be done and take more responsibility for looking after them

Describe different groups and communities they belong to, including family and school, and contribute actively to the life of the class and school

Realise and be able to describe that money comes from different sources and different uses of it

Age 7-8

Make and explain choices, with confidence and independence, about how to develop healthy lifestyles

Identify different types of relationships for themselves and others, and show ways to maintain good relationships and to support others with their relationships

Recognise and describe the nature and consequences of bullying, express ways of responding to it, and support others to do so

Understand why and how rules are made and enforced (in different contexts), why different rules are needed in different situations, and take a lead role in making and changing rules

Demonstrate respect and tolerance towards others, resolve differences, and support others to resolve differences, by looking at alternatives, making decisions and explaining choices

Age 8-9

Express their views, and show how their views can develop in the light of listening to others

Identify and explain some factors that affect emotional health and well being, and strategies for dealing with them

Make judgements and decisions and list and describe some ways, for themselves and for others, of resisting negative peer pressure around issues affecting their health and well being

Take a lead role in researching, discussing and debating topical issues, problems and events

Understand that and describe how resources can be allocated in different ways and how these economic choices affect individuals, communities and the sustainability of the environment

Age 9-10

Demonstrate that they recognise their own worth, support others in recognising theirs, and identify an demonstrate ways to face new challenges

Discuss some of the bodily and emotional changes at puberty and understand how they might affect them, and demonstrate some ways of dealing with these in a positive way

Respond to, or challenge negative behaviours such as stereotyping and aggression, and realise and be able to explain the consequences of antisocial and aggressive behaviours such as

bullying and racism on individuals and communities

Appreciate and explain the range of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom and describe some of the different beliefs and values in society

Age 10-11

Talk about a range of jobs, explain their interests and how they will develop skills to work in the future, and demonstrate how to look after and save money

List a range of substances and drugs that are legal and illegal, including those which are commonly available, describe some of their effects and risks, and explain how to manage the risks in different familiar situations

Understand and describe what democracy is, institutions that support it locally and nationally and how it happens

Explore and comment on how the media present information

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